Types of Surveys Conducted During the Handling of Cargo:


Generally speaking, commodities are handled in an international trade flow as the following pattern shows:


Maker ➜ Exporter ➜ Carrier ➜ Importer ➜ End User


From time to time, disputes regarding the cargo arise amongst the interested parties that are related to the responsibility of each of the parties concerned. Therefore, to help in the solution of any dispute, the cargo will be surveyed by independent authorized companies to ascertain the quality, condition and quantity. The types of surveys that are conducted are listed below:

Condition Survey

A condition survey is carried out at the time a commodity is to be exported to determine its condition as well as the condition of the packing to ensure that both conform to the terms of the contract. A condition survey is also carried out when the responsibility of the cargo is shifted from one party to another.

Actual checking of the condition of the machine to be exported to Thailand

Loading Stowage Survey

Improper stowage can not only cause damage to the commodity but can also cause damage to the carrying vessel. Our surveyors have a great deal of experience in the stowage of cargo and they can make recommendations for the correct stowage which will not only help to prevent damage to the cargo but also the vessel. A stowage survey is normally carried out in conjunction with a condition survey.

Draft Survey

This is an international commercial custom to determine the weight of bulk cargo based on the vessel’s hydrostatic data and is universally accepted as the most efficient and reliable method for the determination of bulk cargo quantities.

Barge Draft Survey

This is a method used to determine the weight on board the barge by physical measurement and subsequent calculation. This method is used in the absence of any displacement scales for the barge.

Break Bulk Survey

This is a survey to determine the condition of the cargo at the time the vessel arrives at the port of discharge and is carried out prior to the vessel discharging. The survey covers the matter of insurance and the carrier’s liability and is proof of the cargo condition even if the transportation had been safely and correctly carried out.

Arrival condition of the equipment for Petron Energy Efficiency Project which was shipped from Bussan, Korea

Damage Survey

When cargoes had been damaged in transit, it is necessary to estimate the extent of damage and where possible to find the cause of damage for any claim for compensation. If the damage is covered by insurance, the survey report is submitted to the insurance company. When a vessel is involved in an accident and general average is declared, we can carry out the required surveys and also give impartial advice and recommendations for the benefit of all interested parties.

Survey on Ship’s Hull, Engine, etc.

We don’t only conduct surveys on commodities, but we also have considerable experience in conducting surveys on vessel’s hull, engine, etc. as shown below:

  • We survey a vessel and her engines at the time of commencement termination of a charter party. This type of survey is known as an "On-Hire" or "Off Hire" Survey.
  • We survey a vessel which has been involved in a marine accident to ascertain the extent of the damage to the vessel and her engine and to investigate the cause of the accident and to estimate the costs of the repairs, if necessary.
  • We conduct surveys on damage caused to the vessel, her loading equipment, her cargo apparatus and personnel as a result of an accident during loading or unloading and to estimate the extent of damage.
  • We conduct surveys to verify the seaworthiness of vessel's such as dredgers, craneboats , barges and vessels under tow and we make the necessary recommendations to ensure safe navigation when towing.

Inspection and Measurement of Raw Materials and Fuel For Iron/Steel Production, Non Ferrous Metals and Ferro Alloys.

We have fully experienced surveyors and inspectors who can carry out quality and quantity inspection for the following :

  • Raw materials for Iron and Steel Production such as iron ore, Sintered iron ore, limestone, dolomite, coal , coke and others,
  • Raw materials for non-ferrous metals such as chrome ore,Manganese ore, nickel ore, copper concentrate and other.
  • Ferro Alloys such as Ferro Chrome, Ferro Silicon, Ferro,Manganese and others.

All our surveys and inspections are carried out in accordance with the standards prescribed in the sales contract. Such standards include JIS – Japanese Industrial standards or ISO – International Standards.

Inspection on Various Liquids, Tank Inspection and Tank Calibration

We carry out inspection for the quality and quantity of various liquids such as chemicals and petrochemicals, vegetable oils, etc.


We also carry out measurement/calibration of tankers and the storage tanks used to store the above mentioned liquid cargoes. The calculation for calibration are processed by the NKKK computer system which enjoys a very high reputation worldwide.

Types of Inspections

  • Tank Inspection : Calibration, inspection for cleanliness and others
  • Quality Inspection : Sampling and Analysis
  • Quality Inspection : All liquids and liquefied gases

Containerized Cargo Survey

We offer advice and conduct surveys when cargoes are imported or exported using containers.


  1. Loading Inspection
    Check the condition of the container both internal and external, etc., Check the packaging, marks, numbers, etc. of the cargo to be loaded., Measurement and weighing of the cargo to be loaded, Planning and stuffing of the container, Sealing the container on completion of stuffing.
  2. Unloading Inspection
    Check the condition of the container and ensure seals are intact, heck the packaging, marks, numbers, etc. of the cargo to be unloaded, Check the weight of the cargo to be unloaded.
  3. Damage Survey
    We check the condition of the cargo to ascertain what percentage of the total cargo is damaged and we also investigate reasons for the damage.

Measurement and Weighing Surveys

This survey is conducted to check the shape, condition, shipping marks, case number, etc. to ensure if it conforms with the shipping documents. We also certify the cubic capacity and gross weight of the cargo as this data is useful to shipping companies for the following reasons:


To calculate fair freight., To obtain the accurate tonnage of the cargo before accepting shipment, To prevent the vessel from shutting out cargo and thus incurring dead freight, To help prevent damage to the vessel, her crew and her equipment when the cubic capacity, weight, dimensions, etc. are known in advance.

Other Surveys

We are always available to conduct the following:


Inspection of various products including vehicles, steel products, etc., Survey and measurement of agricultural and marine products such as cereals, foodstuff, etc., Surveys on cargo on board the vessel for and in behalf of ship-owners, charterers and other interested parties, P & I Claims.


We also conduct volumetric measurements by Photographic Method for inventory purposes.

Photogrammetric Survey

This new method called “ Photogrammetric Survey” uses photos taken by a calibrated camera mounted on a drone or taken manually using a telescopic crane to determine the volume of a certain pile thru a software. This method helps augments the accuracy of calculation against the traditional method of measurement due to the irregularities of shapes of piles.


Method of the Survey :

  1. Taking Pictures and Measurement of the Pile at the Stockyard
    1. Study the Profile of the Pile to be surveyed and determine the locations of the markers to be placed on the Ground Level and on the Pile.
      1. When Using Crane
        Depending on the Profile of the Pile, divide the Pile into Sections and place the Markers on the Ground Level and on the Pile in such a way that each Section will be properly represented and will be captured by the Camera (lens calibrated by the Software) and at least one (1) Section capturing the top portion of the Pile at a height at least two (2) to three (3) times the height of the Pile. In addition, each section will be provided a Calibrated Ruler/Measuring Stick as a Measuring Device for the Software. When taking Pictures on each Section selected, make sure to shoot at least two (2) times varying at a certain angle in order to create a 3D image when process by the Software. (See Figure I2a.1 and I2a.2)


        Figure I2a.1 – Dividing the pile into sections and positions of the crane when taking pictures at varying angles.

        Figure I2a.2 – Placing the ruler and the markers that determines the ground and boundaries of each sections.

      2. When Using Drone
        After determining the locations of the Markers, place the Markers on the Ground Level and on the Pile and ensure that the whole Pile will be properly represented and the entire Pile including Ground Level will be captured by the Camera (lens calibrated by the Software). In addition, a Calibrated Ruler/Meter Stick will be provided as a Measuring Device for the Software. When taking Picture on the entire Pile, make sure to shoot at least two (2) times varying at a certain angle in order to create a 3D image when process by the Software. (See Figure I2b.1)


        Figure I2b.1 – Shooting position of the Drone with ruler and markers placed on the ground.

    2. After Taking Pictures of the Pile (either by Using Crane or Drone)
      1. Measure the Height of the Pile at a pre-determined Ground Level using Laser Distance Meter (Leica Instrument). The pre-determined Ground Level will also be used in determining the Height of the Matting Level of the Pile. (See Figure I3a.1)


        Figure I3a.1 – Measuring Pile height using Laser Distance Meter

  2. Processing of Pictures by the Software
    1. When Pictures taken by using Crane

      As above mentioned that Capturing Pictures of the Pile using Crane is properly represented by Sections and each Section has at least two (2) Pictures taken at a varying angle. The Pictures taken from each Section are processed by the Software to Convert into 3D image on each Section. After converting each Section into 3D image by the Software, all the 3D images will be coupled/connected by the Software to Create one (1) 3D Figure representing the Whole Pile. (See Figure II1a.1)


      Figure II1a.1 – Shooting, Converting to 3D and Coupling

    2. When Pictures taken by using Drone

      As above mentioned that the entire Pile including Ground Level will be properly represented and capturing Pictures at least two (2) times varying at a certain angle. The Pictures taken are processed by the Software to Convert into 3D Image/Figure which represents the Whole Pile. (See Figure II1b.1)


      Figure II1b.1: Taking photo of the whole pile and convert to 3D image

  3. Volume Calculation by the Software
    (For both 3D Images/Figures created by the Software using Crane and Drone)

    The created 3D Image/Figure of the Pile will be processed again by the Software for determining the Volume with reference the height measured using a Distance Laser Meter at a pre-determined Ground Level of the Pile. (See Figure III.1)


    Figure III.1 – Volume calculation and height determined by software

Towing Survey

This survey is to establish if the towage arrangements, including the suitability of the towing vessel or tug/s, the towed unit/s  and any cargo on board are fit for the intended voyage.

Pre-shipment Survey

This survey is primarily to verify the condition of the cargo, assures the correctness in quality and quantity of the goods  prior to export and to make sure that it conforms with the  requirements of the country of exportation.

Asian Gypsy Moth Inspection

The Asian Gypsy Moth (AGM) is a destructive forest pest known to spread via ocean-going vessels in international trade. The pest has established populations only in countries in the Asia Pacific, such as Russia, China, Korea, and Japan. If introduced in the countries where it does not exist, naturally it has the potential to affect the country’s agriculture and forest resources. To prevent the introduction and spread of AGM, it is the responsibility of the ship operator to meet all port entry  requirements . PNKKK, on behalf of the Nippon Kaiji Kentei Kyokai issues Certificate of  Inspection of Freedom from Asian Gypsy Moth.